How infrared heaters work
The natural oscillation of molecules in heat conductors generates infrared heat radiation, which corresponds to the radiation spectrum of the sun.
Infrared rays penetrate air by 98%. The energy contained in them is much more effectively absorbed by the space envelope and objects (furnishings, residents). The air is heated secondarily, by the reflective heat dissipation of the surrounding surfaces and objects in the room.
By contrast, convection heaters (radiators), primarily heat rooms by heating the room air, the worst heat carrier. The heated air rises, cold air flows from below, and a convection current is created.